The Rosetta area, Nile Delta (Egypt)


The Nile River is the second longest river in the world being 6700 km long, with a basin area of about 3 million km2. The river travels through ten African countries from South to North draining finally into the Mediterranean. The river provides more than 97% of Egypt's water requirements. Agriculture consumes more than 85% of the available water resources, employing more than 30% of the population, and contributing about 18% of the country's GDP. Thus, the country's economy and security is very sensitive to changes in river flow arriving at the High Aswan Dam lake at the Egyptian-Sudanese borders, as the dam is the major regulatory facility on the river.

Description in brief

The river flow comes from two main sources: the White Nile originating from the Equatorial Lakes Plateau (providing about 15% of the water arriving to Egypt) and the Blue Nile originating from the Ethiopian Plateau (contributing about 85% of the water arriving to Egypt).
Egypt depends greatly on the river to satisfy more than 97% of the country's water requirements for the various uses including agricultural, industrial, domestic, and other uses. Agriculture is the major economic sector utilizing more than 85% of the available water resources. More than 30% of the population of Egypt (currently a little over 70 million inhabitants) is employed within this sector.
There is a wealth of data on precipitation and monthly river flows in the upper catchments dating back to the early twentieth century. There is also some hydrologic and water resources modelling activities for forecasting the river flows and operating the main reservoir that dates back to early 1980s. Data is also available for the details of the agricultural water use as well as the water use for the other sectors in Egypt in addition to various agricultural activities data. 

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